EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: TYPES, LEVELS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH PRACTICE OF HRM
Journal: Malaysian E Commerce Journal (MECJ)
Author: Daiva Budriene, Danuta Diskiene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Human resources are important assets of every organization. Recruitment and selection play an effective role in improving the organizational performance, because recruitment directly is relating with employee engagement. Employee engagement has emerged as a popular organizational concept in recent years. Employee engagement, strangely enough, has been a crucial priority of HR since before the term was using. It has become one of the leading priorities of human resource practitioners and senior managers in the organization today, so employee engagement has generated great deal of attention among many human resource practitioners. In present day, where is large-scale competition in the market, it is necessary for the organization to have engaged workforce for the survival and smooth functioning of the organization. Every organization wants to make the best utilization of its human resources in order to achieve competitive advantage in the market. When employees are engaged in their work, they have good relationships with their co-workers and working environment becomes better, are not only happy in their job, but also translate that satisfaction into higher productivity and profitability of the organization. High levels of engagement promote retention of talent, foster customer loyalty and improve organizational performance and stakeholder value. The paper discusses theoretical approaches to the significant concept and phenomenon of today – employee engagement and the factors behind it. In addition, the paper examined the type of employee engagement, problematic of individual and organizational engagement that affects organizational decisions. The aim of article is to identify the distinctive features of two types of engagement in the scientific literature employee engagement and organizational engagement, also connections reflecting the possible role of human resource management practices in the process of management of employee engagement. The purpose implies tasks: to reveal the essence of engagement and the factors that determine it ; also is presented a theoretical model of interfaces. The research methodology is the theoretical modeling of the phenomenon employee engagement from a human resource management perspective. The article is presenting in different sections such as meaning and concept of employee engagement, importance and factors influencing employee engagement and impact of employee engagement on organizational performance. The article consists of three logically interconnected parts. The introduction justifies relevance topics. The main part provides a review of literary sources, in which the authors examine the typology of engagement, distinguish types such as job engagement and organizational engagement. This section analyzes the relationship between characteristics and the influence of their design on employee engagement. This section also analyzes the conditions of formation and the results of the manifestation of employee engagement at the individual organizational levels, describes the connection of various aspects of this state with the practice of human resources management. In the final part, is given a theoretical model developed by the author – the main result of the article. It is a hypothetical model of the structure of employee engagement and how various human resources management practices shape employee engagement and how individual engagement of an employee transforms into a competitive advantage of organization. Data sources for the theoretical study described in this article are publications on the topic of engagement of such highly rated publications like Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology and The International Journal of Human Resource Management. The value of the results. This paper may serve as the basis for further research in the field of employee engagement generally and individual additional variable components. Research conclusions may have be used to build the organizational policy of the company in relation to the system human resource management.